- from Austin
- 20. August 2020
- Category:the blog
Have you ever wondered what Nylon 12 is and what it is for? That is why we have developed a complete guide to get to know this type of nylon in the most efficient way. Nowadays we often compare Nylon 6 to Nylon 12.
Therefore we have developed all the features and properties that Nylon 12 PA offers. We also offer a range of comparisons to other types of nylon. This way you can make the best decision when choosing a type of nylon.
Even analyzing all of Nylon 12's features can be a bit confusing for inexperienced users. That's why we've done the research for you and therefore encourage you to read on to learn more about the properties of Nylon 12. From there you can understand why this component is so widely used in different industries and products.
What is Nylon 12?
When we talk about Nylon 12 we are referring to one of the nylon polymers. Here the number 12 is important because you can find a large number of different nylons. Therefore, in order to recognize it, we need to know how it is specifically shaped. Specifically, it consists of a laurolactam of 12 carbons each. That's why it gets the number 12.
In turn, we can assume that the formula of Nylon 12 is:
When we talk about their properties, we can mention that we can find them specifically among polyolefins and short-chain aliphatic nylon like nylon 6. If we look at the main polyamides we can mention that the melting point of this type of nylon is between 178 and 180 degrees Celsius.
Here it is possible to obtain certain properties that are very suitable for various commercial productions. These include abrasion resistance, tensile strength and other mechanical properties such as high hardness. This is a set of properties similar to nylon 66 or nylon 6.
On the other hand, the hydrocarbon chain length is somewhat long, allowing for low water absorption and density. In particular, the exact amount is 1.01 grams/ml, which is very useful for various production areas.
In addition, a high resistance to stress cracking is achieved. In addition, some chemicals will not harm Nylon-12 due to its excellent resistance to them.
What is Nylon 12 used for?
This kind of nylon in particular has a sufficient number of applications in some industries and productions. Therefore, polyamide additives, for which nylon 12 is used, are usually required. Concretely, this material is widely used in various medical and pharmaceutical fields.
Therefore it is possible to find this type of nylon in sterilized bags, films in general and films used for packaging. Therefore, the use of this material makes a lot of sense due to its resistance and good flexibility at the same time. At the same time, it may be necessary to improve the aroma impermeability and water vapor permeability.
Therefore, if necessary, nylon-12 should be added to PE films. While this requires a certain budget, the results are much more practical for preserving many foods. However, the most well-known uses include other industries and the production of other items.
Some of these are the automotive industry in general or some areas of electronics. So when sintered powder or foil is needed to coat metals, Nylon 12 is used.
When specifically referring to the electronics industry, Nylon 12 offers a good level as an insulating material. This is particularly useful during the cable jacketing production process.
When we refer to automobile manufacturing here, gasoline and oil resistant pipes are required. Nylon-12 is also used for this because of its insulating, abrasion and chemical resistant properties. However, we can still mention other uses for certain personal care and beauty products.
Nylon-12 is used in skin creams and body and face powders as a plumping and opacifying agent. Because of this, various ways have been found to obtain Nylon 12 at a relatively affordable cost.
Finally, among the most common applications we must also include the textile industry. Nylon 12 is also suitable for some leisure products and for certain sporting goods in the textile industry.
Synthesis of Nylon 12, How is Polyamide 12 made?
Two different ways can be used to obtain Nylon 12. The first is with a carboxylic acid group, a bifunctional monomer with an amine and a specific polycondensation of aminolauric acid. To do this, we need to use the following formula.
nH2N(CH2)11CO2H → [(CH2)11CONH]N+nH2Ö
As mentioned, this isn't the only way to get Nylon-12. Another well-known way is the ring polymerization of laurolactam, at a temperature between 260 and 300 degrees Celsius. Here, anionic or cationic compounds are required to achieve ring opening.
In addition, it is important to mention that cationic initiators can have some disadvantages for people claiming to use them. In particular, you will find that they rust in a very short time compared to the second option. In addition, they have a significantly lower stability, which prevents large-scale commercial use.
Therefore, activated anionic polymerization, i. H. casting monomers, a much more convenient way to carry out the procedure. If we only refer to commercial areas and their specific production, then ring opening polymerization is the best way. Here we need to use the following formula to do this.
n [(CH2)11CONH] → [(NUR2)11CONH]N
Nylon 12 Properties
As we mentioned under its properties, in addition to having a low density, we can achieve one of the lowest water absorption values. More specifically, it's a density of just 1.01 grams/mL. Also, you will find that the melting point is reached between temperatures of 178 degrees and 180 degrees Fahrenheit.
Therefore it has the lowest melting point compared to other leading polyamides. In addition, we can also obtain a range of mechanical properties useful for a variety of applications and industries.
Some of these are abrasion resistance, tensile strength and high overall toughness. Therefore, Polyamide 12 allows us to improve the functionality of many objects.
In addition, it is possible to obtain good crack resistance when nylon 12 is under some tension. This component is also well resistant to a large number of chemicals.
Some of them have already been mentioned and are often included in many production processes. In addition, the application of nylon 12 in various industries is increasing.
|tensile strenght||7251,89 psi (50 MPa)|
|Gearmodule||1.4 grade point average|
|carved Izod||0,06 kJ/m|
|Maximum operating temperature||70 °C (158 °F)|
|Flammability rating UL 94||v2|
|dielectric strength||60 MV/m|
|Heat distortion temperature at 0.45 MPa||150 °C (302 °F)|
|Heat distortion temperature at 1.80 MPa||55 °C (131 °F)|
|material drying||2 hours at 90°C (194°F)|
|melting temperature range||190 °C – 210 °C (374 °F – 410 °F)|
|mold temperature range||40 °C – 60 °C (104 °F – 140 °F)|
What are the properties of Nylon 12?
In particular, we can mention that the best properties of nylon 12 can improve the production process of a large number of products. Some of its properties make it an excellent choice for ski boots, medical catheters, protective sleeves, gaskets and gaskets.
So we also find the use of Nylon 12 for covers, hoses, dampening of sprockets, nozzles, flexible hoses, cable insulation and clamps. Of course, it is not as widespread as nylon 6. In addition, due to its different ways of obtaining it, it is a very convenient option in these times.
Among all polyamides available on the market, nylon 12 is characterized by its low amide concentration. In particular, these are organic compounds that contain some nitrogen among their components. Because of this, we can name the best benefits for those who decide to use this item.
Here at Polyamide 12 it is an excellent choice for all types of environments with varying humidity levels that can fluctuate. As mentioned above, Nylon 12 absorbs very little moisture. Because of this, the dimensional stability of Nylon 12 PA products is efficiently maintained.
On the other hand, another advantage of using Nylon 12 is its efficient resistance to different temperatures in an environment. Here it is possible to maintain a good level of durability and resistance to the absence of impacts or to different impacts. This property is also not lost at very low temperatures below freezing.
Without a doubt, Nylon 12 was created to offer a wide range of solutions in different products. In combination with this, Nylon 12 is also efficient here when it comes to chemicals. So here we can include various solvents, salt water, greases of various types, fuels, oils and other hydraulic fluids. In addition, one or more of these elements are included in more than one production process.
Therefore, it is becoming increasingly necessary to incorporate Nylon 12 into many production processes. In addition, it is possible to use this type of nylon to encapsulate certain metallic components. As previously mentioned, Nylon 12 can resist cracking even under heavy loads. Here the resistance level does not give way at all.
Nylon 12 also offers a reasonable level of protection and abrasion resistance. Also, among which we must count not only the already mentioned chemicals, but also other factors. In addition, we can continue to mention its good qualities.
You will find that this type of nylon can offer one of the lowest coefficients of friction. This is therefore useful when working dry with certain materials such as PBT, polyacetal or steel. So this component was inserted into the production process of the automotive industry.
Finally, it is one of the best components to work with and manages to reduce vibration and noise. At the same time, this type of nylon offers excellent resistance to fatigue under certain adverse conditions. One of the most well known conditions is high frequency cyclic loading.
Therefore we find three different versions of this nylon. Each of these options are flexible, semi-flexible, and standard nylon. Although these three types of nylon share many similar properties, each of them offers precise and different solutions.
Advantages of Nylon 12
As mentioned earlier, there are many useful applications for Nylon 12 in many manufacturing processes. In particular, this is due to the excellent benefits that are achieved for various products. Therefore, here we must mention the main advantages that are obtained in the production process.
- Nylon 12 items have high dimensional stability. In particular, this allows them to withstand poorly in all types of environments with different humidity levels. Moisture absorption is one of the lowest.
- In addition, the resistance to no bumps or bumps is very efficient. Even if an object is exposed to sub-zero temperatures, this advantage is not lost.
- In addition, the abrasion resistance of certain chemicals is high. Some of these are salt water, oil, solvents and hydraulic fluids.
- Vibrations can be reduced and high noise levels can be dampened in general.
- It is also a highly workable component and resists fatigue when dealing with high frequency cyclic loads.
- Here in Nylon 12 it has one of the lowest coefficients of friction compared to other similar components. This is very advantageous when running dry against polyacetal or steel.
Disadvantages of Nylon 12
Here it is necessary to mention some of the disadvantages arising from the use of Nylon 12. It is a set of disadvantages similar to nylon 6 and other components.
- This type of nylon is not particularly resistant to strong acids and bases.
- When using Nylon 12 in casting applications, shrinkage is present, and at high percentages.
- Finally, the water and moisture absorption is very low. However, the same amount of moisture absorption weakens the mechanical properties of certain products.
Common Nylon 12 applications
In these times, it is very common to find Nylon 12 in products of various industries. Here we can mention some of them such as cosmetic, automotive and food industry products, among others. In particular, it is often used as a polyamide additive.
One of the most common examples are the medical and pharmaceutical fields in different parts of the world. It is precisely here that the insulating properties of certain drugs and similar products come into their own. Therefore, Nylon-12 can be found in a large number of sterile bags. Properties are also used to add an insulating film to the material used for certain packaging.
Because of this, the food industry can better protect and preserve the various foods it produces. In particular, food flavors are impregnated on the one hand.
As a result, they are preserved more efficiently from the inside. The water vapor permeability is also improved. Some common uses are:
- medical catheters
- ski boots
- Different types of protective covers
- sheet metal connections
- shock absorber sprockets
- cable insulation
If the product parts need nylon 12 material, how to process?
There are 3 main methods of manufacturing Nylon 12 parts: 3D Printing, Injection Molding, CNC Machining.
Through 3D printing
In order to be able to process nylon on a 3D printer, you need software for this. In particular, a creation software allows you to design all kinds of objects that you can get with the printer. Therefore, after designing an object, you must have all materials available for printing.
In this case, Nylon 12 can bring a number of benefits to the product being printed. However, it should be noted that the absorption of moisture from the air can affect Nylon 12's physical capabilities.
By injection molding
As in the previous case, you should also have a preliminary draft of the product that you want to receive. This is really an important step that will save you time and money later. There are many tools and software that you can use for this purpose.
Then you need to have the appropriate shape for the object you want to get. Here you will find different options that can offer different functionalities. Finally, you need to start the manufacturing process to get the right part in the mold.
By CNC machining
As with the previous options, you must also learn to use CNC machine software efficiently. This is one of the most important steps to efficiently design the desired product.
After that, you can use nylon 12 and other various materials. Once you have your design and materials, you can begin the process. In a few moments you have designed the product.
Nylon 12 compared to other nylon materials
Below we show some differences between Nylon 12 and Nylon 6, Nylon 11, Nylon 66, Nylon 101.
Nylon 12 VS Nylon 6, what's the difference?
Here we can mention some differences between the two types of nylon. On the one hand, Nylon 6 can offer a higher level of durability and strength. Therefore, if we look at some industries, we see that Nylon 6 is more widely used. In turn, it can provide a high level of functionality in manufacturing various products in harsh conditions.
Likewise, functional performance tests with Nylon 6 yield results more in line with the most intensive use. As a result, Nylon 6 can deliver excellent results in terms of elongation, breaking and traction. However, nylon 12 continues to be used in several areas.
|Material||Nylon 12||Nylon 6|
|tensile strenght||7251,89 psi (50 MPa)||9800 psi (67,6 MPa)|
|carved Izod||0,06 kJ/m||0,3 kJ/m|
Nylon 12 VS Nylon 11
For one, manufacturing Nylon 11 requires far fewer resources. Therefore, the environmental impact is much lower than that of Nylon 12. Thus, it is possible to achieve higher heat resistance in addition to higher durability.
In addition, the water absorption is also one of the lowest. In addition, the UV resistance is sufficient. Even the two types of nylon can provide similar applications. Again, Nylon 11 can efficiently resist certain chemicals such as detergents, fuels, oils, mineral bases, alcohols and others.
|Material||Nylon 12||Nylon 11|
|tensile strenght||7251,89 psi (50 MPa)||32000 psi (52 MPa)|
|carved Izod||0,06 kJ/m||2,61 kJ/m|
Nylon 12 VS Nylon 66
Comparing Nylon 12 vs Nylon 66, we see that a larger budget is required to get the first option. Nylon 66, on the other hand, offers greater impact resistance and higher operating temperatures. As a result, Nylon 66 is commonly used in some cheap and low-budget products.
You can also find Nylon 66 in some carbon fiber, glass bead, or fiberglass products. Better results and optimal thermal and mechanical performance are achieved here.
As if that wasn't enough, shine and elasticity combine to offer the best application. Thereafter, the tensile strength and resistance to various factors are similar between the two types of nylon.
|Material||Nylon 12||Nylon 66|
|tensile strenght||7251,89 psi (50 MPa)||8500 psi (59 MPa)|
|carved Izod||0,06 kJ/m||7,13 kJ/m|
Nylon 12 VS Nylon 101
In this case we see that Nylon 101 is commonly used in bearings and certain wear products. That's because Nylon 101 can provide high levels of strength and durability for a variety of usage factors.
Nylon 101 also offers heat resistance up to 210 degrees Fahrenheit. This means that both the strength and stiffness of nylon 101 can exceed nylon 12 in some respects.
In addition, the tensile strength of Nylon 12 can far exceed that of Nylon 101. However, Nylon 101 can offer a much lower density than Nylon 12.
|Material||Nylon 12||Nylon 101|
|tensile strenght||7251,89 psi (50 MPa)||15000 psi|
|carved Izod||0,06 kJ/m||0,32 kJ/m|
In these times, Nylon 12 can bring multiple benefits in the production process of multiple industries. However, it is not the only nylon available on the market today. In addition, knowledge of polyamide 12 allows you to think about the use of this component if necessary.
What is Nylon 12 used for? ›
Nylon 12 is mainly used for films for packing material in the food industry and sterilized films and bags for use in the pharmaceutical and medical fields. When added to polyethylene films, it improves water vapor permeability and aroma impermeability.What are the disadvantages of Nylon 12? ›
One of the main disadvantages of nylon 6/12 is its relatively low chemical resistance to strong acids and bases. Moreover, it is often more expensive than other nylons, primarily because of its restricted availability.What is PA12 material? ›
PA 12 (also known as Nylon 12) is a good general-use plastic with broad additive applications and is known for its toughness, tensile strength, impact strength and ability to flex without fracture. PA 12 has long been used by injection molders due to these mechanical properties.What is the heat deflection temperature of Nylon 12? ›
Nylon 12 has a HDT (heat deflection temperature) of 55 °C (131 °F). The heat deflection temperature is the temperature when deformation will occur under load – so in most cases you will not want to exceed this.Does nylon 12 clog pores? ›
Nylon-12 Powder is white base powder with a good price point, used in making all kinds of cosmetics. It is a great substitute for Talc, and has a similar soft skin feel. It is also shown to not block skin pores the way that mica and talc can. It has great slip, moderate oil absorption.How durable is nylon 12? ›
It features excellent resistance to chemicals, including hydraulic fluids, oil, fuels, grease, salt water and solvents. Nylon 12 has exceptionally strong resistance to cracking under stress, including instances when it encapsulates metal components. It provides excellent resistance to abrasion.